PROBLEM EDUCATION IN INDONESIA


CHAPTER I
A. Background
Education qualities in Indonesia is very poor this time. This is evidenced by data from UNESCO’s data (2000) about human development index that is marked by reaching achievement of education, healthy, and income that is shown by human development index more decreased. Among 182 countries Indonesia take position in 111st in 2009, decreased to 124th in this year among 184 countries.
According to survey of Political and Economic Risk Consultant (PERC) education qualities in Indonesia was ranked 12th of 12 countries in Asia. Indonesia’s position was under Vietnam. The data reported by the World Economic Forum Sweden (2000), Indonesia has a low competitiveness, which is only ranked 37th of 57 countries surveyed in the world. And still according to a survey from the same institution of Indonesia predicated only as a follower rather than as technology leaders from 53 countries worldwide.
In the 21st century world of education in Indonesia to be excited. Excitedness was not caused by the greatness of national education quality but more awareness of the dangers that is caused by the backwardness of education in Indonesia. This feeling is caused by some basics. One of basic is entering 21st influence of globalization will be strong and opened. Advancement of technology and changes that occur to give a new awareness that Indonesia no longer standing alone. Indonesia was in the midst of a new world, the world is opened so that people are free to compare life in another country.
In this moment We feel that is the lag in the quality of education between formal and informal education. And the results were obtained when we compare it with other nations. Education has become the crutch in improving Indonesia’s human resources for nation building. Therefore, we should be able to improve Indonesian human resources that don’t compete with human resources in other states.
Once we observe it seems clearly that the problem is serious in improving the quality of education in Indonesia is the low quality of education at all educational levels, both formal and informal education. And that’s what causes the low quality of education that impede the provision of resources human family who have the expertise and skills to meet the nation’s development in various field.
Low quality of education in Indonesia was also shown Balitbang data (2011) that of the 146,052 primary school in Indonesia were only twenty six schools who received worldwide recognition in the category of The Primary Years Programme (PYP). Of the 20 918 junior high school in Indonesia was also only eleven schools that received worldwide recognition in the category of The Middle Years Programme (MYP) and the 8036 high school was only nineteen schools who received worldwide recognition in the category of the Diploma Programme (DP).
The caused of low quality of education in Indonesia among others is a matter of effectiveness, efficiency and standardization of teaching. It is still a problem of education as generally in Indonesia. The specific problems in education are:
1) Poor infrastructure,
2) The low quality of teachers
3) Low welfare of teachers,
4) The low student achievement,
5) The low educational equity opportunities,
6) The low relevance of education to the needs,
7) The high tuition of education.
The problems mentioned above will be the subject material in a paper entitled ” Problem Education In Indonesia “.

CHAPTER II

A. Characteristic Education in Indonesia
Education in Indonesia have been implemented by independent from the aim of education because Indonesia education that is done in indonesia that will be important for indonesia country.
Aspect of godness has been developed in many ways such as through education, religious education at school or in college, to lecture religion in society, religious life in the dormitories, the podiums of religion and godness at the television, radio, newspaper and so on. Ingredients that are absorbed through the media it will integrate within the spirit of the student.
Development of the mind are mostly done in school or college through field of study subject they studied. Mind of students is used to solve problem, to solve various problem, to analyze and to summarize thing.
B. Education quality in Indonesia
As we know, the quality of education in Indonesia is getting worse. This is evident from the quality of teachers, learning tool, and his students. Teacher certainly had no hope of pent they can’t convey to their students. Indeed, teachers are less competent today. Many people who become teachers because it is not accepted in other majors or lack of funds. Unless the old teachers who have long dedicated itself to become a teacher. In addition to student teaching experience, they have experience in the subjects they teach. Not to mention the issue of teacher salaries. If this phenomenon is allowed to proceed, no longer education in Indonesia will be destroyed because there are many experienced teachers who retired.
Means of learning also become increasingly a factor decline of education in Indonesia, especially for people in underdeveloped areas. However, for the people in the underdeveloped regions, the most important is an applied science that is really used for living and working. There are many problems that cause normally they do not learn like most students in general, among others, teacher and school.
“Education is the responsibility of the government completely,” said President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono after a limited cabinet meeting at the Ministry of Education Building, Jl Sudirman, Jakarta, Monday (march 12th,2007).
The President explained several steps to be taken by the government in order to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, among others, namely:
1) Taken by the government, namely to improve access to the public to be able to enjoy education in Indonesia. Reject the measuring of enrollment.
2) Eliminating inequality in access to education, such as inequality in the villages and towns, as well as gender.
3) Improving the quality of education by improving the qualifications of teachers and lecturers, as well as increasing the average value of passing the national exam.
4) The government will increase the number of types of education in the field of vocational competence or professional school. To prepare a ready-made power is needed.
5) The government plans to build infrastructure such as increasing the number of computers and libraries in school.
6) The government also increased the education budget. For this year’s budgeted Rp 44 trilyun.
7) That is the use of information technology in educational applications.
8) the finance for the poor in order to follow using education fasilities.
C. Causes of Low Quality of Education in Indonesia
Below will be described some of the causes of low quality of education in Indonesia in general, namely:
1) Effectiveness of Education in Indonesia
Effective education is an education that enable learners to be able to easily learn, fun and achieve goal as expected. Thus, educators (lecturer, teacher, instructor, and trainer) are required to be able to increase the effectiveness of learning so that learning can be useful.
Effectiveness of education in Indonesia is very low. After doing research and educational practitioners to the field survey, one reason is the absence of a clear educational goals sebelm learning activities undertaken. This leads to learners and educators do not know “goal” of what will be generated so as not to have a clear picture in the educational process. Clearly this is an important issue if we want the effectiveness of teaching. How could the goal be achieved if we do not know what our goals.
During this time, many opinions assume that formal education is valued only a formality to establish Indonesia’s human resources. No matter how formal the learning outcomes, the most important is to have conducted a high education level and can be considered great by the community. Such assumption, too, who led the effectiveness of teaching in Indonesia is very low. Every person has the advantage in their fields and are expected to take appropriate education talent and interest rather than just to be considered great by others.
In education especially secondary schools for example, someone who has advantage of the social field and forced to take science course will result in a lower effectiveness of teaching than the students who follow courses that fit their talents and interests. The things that’s a case of a lot happens in Indonesia. And unfortunately prestige issue no less important in causing the low effectiveness of education in Indonesia.
2) Teaching Efficiency in Indonesia
Efficient is how to generate the effectiveness of a goal with a process that is more ‘cheap’. In the process of education would be far better if we take into account to obtain good results without forgetting the good also. Those things also who are less if we look at education in Indonesia. We did not consider the process, just how it can achieve results that have been agreed upon standard.
Some problems in the teaching efficiency dindonesia the high cost of education, time spent in the educational process, quality pegajar and many other things that cause the inefficiency of the education process in Indonesia. There are also influential in improving Indonesia’s human resources better.
Problem of high tuition of education in Indonesia has become common for us. Actually the price of education in Indonesia is relatively more descreased if we compare with other countries that do not take free tuition education system. But why do we think of education in Indonesia is quite expensive? It was not us point out here if income is high enough and the people of Indonesia for a fee commensurate education.
If we talk about the tuition of education, we’re not just talking quietly tuition, training, courses or formal or informal educational institutions selected other, but we also talk about supporting property such as books, and talk about the cost of transport to be taken to reach the institute teaching that we choose. In primary schools, it is true if it is enacted fee waiver teaching, nemun learners not only that, the other requirement is a teaching text books, stationery, uniforms and other things that when we survey, it was obliged by educators who only deal. It is surprise again, there are educators who require their students tutoring to participants, who surely paid for these educator.
Besides the issue of high tuition of education in Indonesia, another problem is the time of teaching. With field research, we can see that the face-to-face education in Indonesia is relatively longer than any other country. In formal education in secondary schools for example, there are schools that schedule pengajarnnya per day starting from 07.00 until end in 16.00 hours. This is clearly not efficient, because when we watched again, students who follow the process of formal education who spend a lot of time, many students who follow other informal education institutions such as academic tutoring, language, and so on. Clearly also seen, that the long process of education is ineffective as well, because the students ended up following informal education to complement the formal education is less valued.
In addition, another problem the efficiency of teaching which we discuss is the quality of teaching. Lack of quality teachers also likely to cause less learners achieve the expected results and end up taking additional education which also require more money.
What we see that is caused by a lack of quality teachers who teach teachers are not on competence. For example, teacher A has a basic education in language, but in teaching skills, which is really no competence. It is true if we look at the condition of education in real. Another thing is the educator who can’t communicate properly teaching materials, making it easily to understand and to create your interested learners.
A good education system also plays an important role in improving the efficiency of education in Indonesia. It is unfortunate that our educational system is also changing so confusing educators and learners.
In recent years, our educational system curriculum 1994, the 2004 curriculum, competency based curriculum modifier teaching process becomes an active educational process, to the other new curriculum. When changing the curriculum, we also changed the way education teachers, and teachers should be trained beforehand which also adds to the cost of tuition fees. So it is very unfortunate if too often replace a curriculum that is considered effective kuaran then immediately replace it with a curriculum that is considered more effective.
The concept of efficiency will result if the desired output can be produced optimally with only a relatively fixed input, or if the input is as small as possible that can produce an optimal output. The concept of efficiency itself consists of technological efficiency and economic efficiency. Applied technological efficiency in the achievement of the physical quantity of output in accordance with a predefined outcome measures. While economic efficiency is created if the measure of satisfaction value or price is applied to the output.
The concept of efficiency has always been associated with effectiveness. Effectiveness is part of the concept of efficiency because the level of effectiveness is closely related to the achievement of objectives relative to its price. When associated with education, then an efficient educational programs tend to be marked with the pattern of resource deployment and efficient education resource that has been laid out efficiently. An efficient education program is a program that is able to create a balance between supplying and demanding for educational resources so that efforts to achieve goals not have problems.
3) Standardization Education in Indonesia
If we want to improve the quality of education in Indonesia, we are also talking about the standardization of teaching that we take. Of course, after going through the process to set standards that will be taken.
Education always change. Competencies that is needed by society over and continual especially in a world that is open in the modern world in globalization era. Competencies that should be owned by someone in the institution must meet the standard.
As we see today, standards and competence in formal and informal education avid visible only to the standard and competence. The quality of education is measured by the standards and competence in the various versions, so that new bodies established to implement standardization and competencies such as the National Standardization Agency of Education (BSNP).
Review of the standardization and competence to improve the quality of education eventually led us in conveyed the hidden dangers of the possibility of education that is stressed by the standards of competence until loss of meaning and purpose of such education.
Indonesia student sometimes think about how to achieve educational standards, not how to have taken effective education and can be used. No matter how to get result or, more specifically the values obtained, which is terpentinga meet the above standard.
Things like the above is very unfortunate because the means of education such as loss of meaning just because it’s too led standards of competence. It was definitely one of the causes of low quality of education in Indonesia.
Into the bargain, it would be better if we questioned again whether the standard of education in Indonesia was appropriate or not. In the case of national examination is almost always become contraversion. For example, we assess the existence of such an evaluation system national examination is good enough, but that we are pity this is such an educational evaluation that determines whether or not graduate students attend the program, only carried out once without looking at the process that is continued to learn that have the education process for several years. In addition it does only once, such an evaluation only evaluates three areas of study without evaluating other areas of study that has been followed by learners.
Many other things also that we can actually discuss in the discussion standardization teaching in Indonesia. Also the problems that exist in it, which is certainly more numerous, and require deeper research.
The cause of the low quality of education in Indonesia that also would not limit to the extent that we discussed above. Many things cause the low quality of our education. Surely such a thing that we find if we dig deeper into the root of the problem. And hopefully if we understand root of the problem, we can improve the quality of education in Indonesia so that is so good anymore.
In addition to several causes of low quality of education in the above, the following will be presented also in particular some of the problems that cause low quality of education in Indonesia.
1. Low Quality of Physical Facilities
For example, physical facilities, many schools and colleges we are building is damaged, the ownership and use of low learning media, library books are incomplete. While not a standard lab, inadequate use of information technology and so on. Even still many schools that did not have its own building, no libraries, no laboratories and so on.
Data Balitbang national education department (DepDikNas) (2003) mentions for the primary school unit there are institutions that is 146,052 building, it can accommodate 25,918,898 student. There are 865,258 classroom. From all the classrooms as much as 364,440 or 42.12% in good condition, 299,581 or 34.62% suffered minor damage and as many as 201,237 or 23.26% was severely damaged. If the condition of islamic primary school are calculated higher rates of damage due to conditions worse than the primary school in general. This situation also occurred in junior high, islamic junior high, senior high, islamic senior high, and vocational school although the percentages are not equal.
2. Low Quality of Teachers
The situation of teachers in Indonesia are also very apprehensive. Most teachers don’t have enough professionalism to carry out their duties referred to in article 39 of Law No 20/2003 of the learning plan, implement learning, assessing learning outcomes, coaching, training, conduct research and perform community service.
Not only that, some teachers in Indonesia even declared unfair to teach. Percentage of teacher according to the feasibility of teaching in the year 2002-2003 in various educational units as follows: for a decent elementary school teach only 21.07% (domestic) and 28.94% (private), to SMP 54.12% (domestic) and 60, 99% (private), for high school 65.29% (domestic) and 64.73% (private), as well as for vocational teaching decent 55.49% (domestic) and 58.26% (private).
Feasibility of teaching was clearly related to the level of teacher education itself. Data Balitbang National Education Department (depdiknas) (1998) showed from about 1.2 million teachers in primary / MI only 13.8% are educated D2-Education diploma and above. In addition, from approximately 680,000 junior high teacher / new MTs 38.8% diploma educated D3-Educational upward. At secondary school level, of the 337,503 teachers, 57.8% have a new S1 upwards. At higher education level, from 181 544 lecturers, new 18.86% are educated to the top S2 (3.48% educated S3).
Although teachers and educators are not the only factor determining the success of education, however, teaching is the central point of education and qualifications, as a mirror quality, teaching staff contributed greatly to the quality of education which it is responsible. The quality of teachers and low teacher also influenced by low levels of well-being of teachers.
3. Low Teacher Welfare
The low well-being of teachers have a role in making low quality of education in Indonesia. Based on the survey FGII (Independent Teachers Federation Indonesia) in mid-2005, ideally a teacher receives a monthly salary of Rp 3 million rupiah. Now, the average income of civil servant teachers per month of Rp 1.5 million. teacher aides Rp, 460 thousand, and teachers in private schools on average Rp 15 thousand per hour. With income like that, put it bluntly, many teachers are forced to do a second job. There is teaching again at another school, giving lessons in the afternoon to ojek, traders boiled noodles, book sellers, traders pulse phones, etc.
With the Law on Teachers and Lecturers, perhaps the welfare of teachers and lecturers (PNS) is somewhat tolerable. Article 10 The law already guarantees the feasibility of life. In the article it mentioned teachers and lecturers will receive appropriate and adequate income, among others, include basic salary, allowances attached to the salary, allowance, and / or special allowances and other income related to their duties. They are appointed local administration / district government for special areas are also entitled to home office.
However, the welfare gap and domestic private teachers into other problems that arise. In the environment of private education, welfare problems are still difficult to achieve the ideal level. Reported Mind January 9, 2006, 70 percent of 403 private universities in West Java and Banten are not able to adjust the welfare of teachers in accordance with the mandate of Law Teachers and Lecturers.
4. Low Student Achievement
With such circumstances (lack of physical facilities, teacher quality, and welfare of teachers) became student achievement is not satisfactory. As an example of physics and mathematics achievement in Indonesia in the international students is very low. According to Trends in Mathematic and Science Study 2003 (2004), students in Indonesia is only ranked 35th of 44 countries in terms of achievement in mathematics and ranked 37th of 44 countries in terms of science achievement. In this case student achievement our students far below Malaysia and Singapore as the country’s nearest neighbors.
In terms of achievements, 15 September 2004 for the United Nations Development Programme has also announced the results of the study of human qualities simultaneously around the world through its report, entitled Human Development Report 2004. In this annual report Indonesia only occupy the 111th position from 177 countries. When compared with neighboring countries only, the position of Indonesia are far below.
In an international scale, according to World Bank Report (Greaney, 1992), IEA studies (International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement) in East Asia showed that the reading skills of fourth grade students are at the lowest rank. The average reading test scores for elementary students: 75.5 (Hong Kong), 74.0 (Singapore), 65.1 (Thailand), 52.6 (Philippines), and 51.7 (Indonesia).
Indonesian children were only able to control 30% of the material and found them very difficult to answer the questions that require reasoning shaped description. This may be because they are very accustomed to memorizing and working on multiple choice questions.
In addition, the results of a study of The Third International Mathematic and Science Study-Repeat-TIMSS-R, 1999 (IEA, 1999) showed that, among 38 participating countries, junior high student achievement grade 2 Indonesia is on the order-32 for IPA, the 34 for Mathematics. In the world of higher education according to the magazine Asia Week of 77 universities surveyed in Asia Pacific was fourth best university in Indonesia only ranked 61st, 68th, 73rd and 75th.
5. Lack of Equality of Education Opportunity
Educational opportunities are still limited to the elementary school level. Data Balitbang Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs Directorate General of Binbaga Department in 2000 shows Net enrollment (NER) for primary school age children in 1999 reached 94.4% (28.3 million students). Achievement of this APM were high. Net enrollment in secondary education is still low at 54, 8% (9.4 million students). Meanwhile, early childhood education services is still very limited. Failure of early childhood development in the future will certainly impede the development of human resources as a whole. Therefore we need a policy and appropriate educational equity strategy to address these inequities.
6. Needs Education With Low Relevance
This can be seen from the number of graduates who are unemployed. Data BAPPENAS (1996) collected since 1990 show the unemployment rate faced by high school graduates by 25.47%, Diploma/S0 by 27.5% and PT of 36.6%, whereas in the same period employment growth is quite height for each level of education is 13.4%, 14.21% and 15.07%. According to Education Ministry data Balitbang 1999, each year approximately 3 million children drop out of school and have no life skills, giving rise to its own labor problems. The existence of the incongruity between educational outcomes and the needs of the workforce is due to the curriculum that the material is less funsional of the skills needed when students enter to the work field.
7. Expensive Cost of Education
Quality education is expensive. These words often appear to justify the high costs of attending any public education bench. The high costs of education from Kindergarten to Higher Education make the poor have no choice but do not attend school. Poor people should not be school.
To enter Kindergarten and Elementary School are currently required costs Rp 500,000, – to Rp 1,000,000. There’s even a levy on top of $ 1 million. Sign Junior / Senior High School could reach USD 1 million to Rp 5 million.
The more expensive cost of education today can not be separated from government policies that implement School-Based Management. School-based management in Indonesia in reality is more understood as an effort to mobilize funds. Therefore, the School Committee / Board of Education which is an organ of the school-based management has always required the element of entrepreneurs.
The assumption, entrepreneurs have access to broader capital. The result, after the School Committee is formed, all levy money is always under the guise, “according to School Committee’s decision”. However, at the implementation level, it is not transparent, because it is elected to the board and committee members are the ones close to the Principal. As a result, only the School Committee policy Principal legitimator, and school-based management was just a disclaimer legitimacy of the state to the problems of education of its people.
This condition will be worse with the Draft Law on Education Legal Entity(BHMN). Changing the status of education of the public property to the form of legal entity has clear economic and political consequences great. With the change of status, the Government could easily throw its responsibility for the education of its citizens to the owners of legal entities that figure is not clear. State University was transformed into State Owned Legal Entity. The emergence BHMN and school-based management are a few examples of the controversial education policy. BHMN own impact on the soaring costs of education in some universities favorites.
Privatization or weakening the state’s role in public service sector can not escape from the pressures of debt and debt policies to ensure payment. Indonesia’s foreign debt amounting to 35-40 percent of the state budget each year is a driving factor privatization of education. As a result, sectors such as education funding absorbing the victim. Education funding cut to a mere 8 percent.
From APBN 2005 only 5.82% Budget allocated to education. Compare with funds to pay debts that drain 25% of spending in the state budget (www.kau.or.id). The government plans to privatize education legitimized through a number of regulations, such as the Law on National Education System, Legal Education Bill, Draft Government Regulation (RPP) of the Elementary and Secondary Education, and RPP on Compulsory Education. Strengthening the privatization of education, for example, is seen in Article 53 (1) of Law No. 20/2003 on National Education System (System). In that article mentioned, organizers and/or formal education unit established by the Government or incorporated community education.
As with companies, school is free to seek capital to be invested in educational operation. Coordinator for Justice Education Network, Jackie Mukhtar judged that the privatization of education means the government has legitimized the commercialization of education by handing responsibility for providing education to the market. That way, school will have the autonomy to decide for themselves the cost of education. School course will peg the cost as high as to improve and maintain quality. As a result, access to people who are less able to enjoy a quality education will be limited and increasingly fragmented society based on social status, between rich and poor.
The same thing is spoken Revrisond Bawsir economic observers. According to him, privatization of education is the agenda of global capitalism that has been designed long ago by donor countries through the World Bank. Through the Draft Law Legal Education (BHP), the Government plans to privatize education. All the education unit will become legal education (BHP) are required to seek its own funds. This applies to all public schools, from elementary to college.
For certain people, some state universities are now changing the status of a State Owned Legal Entity (BHMN) is a scourge. If the reason is that quality education must be expensive, then the argument is valid only in Indonesia. In Germany, France, Holland, and in several other developing countries, many colleges of education quality but low cost. Even some countries there is eliminate tuition fees.
Quality education is not possible cheap, or rather, do not be cheap or free. But the problem is who should pay for it? In fact the government is obliged to guarantee every citizen access to education and ensure public access down to get a quality education. However, the fact that the Government actually want to argue from responsibility. Though limited funds can not be a reason for the Government to ‘wash hand’.
D. Solution of Problem of Education in Indonesia
To solve the above problems, an outline there are two solutions can be given as follows:
First, systemic solutions, that is solutions with changing social systems associated with the educational system. As we all know the education system is closely associated with the economic system that is applied. The education system in Indonesia today, implemented in the context of the economic system of capitalism (the school of neo-liberalism), which among other principled minimize the roles and responsibilities of the state in public affairs, including education funding.
Thus, solutions to problems that exist, particularly concerning the subject of financing, such as low physical facilities, teacher welfare, and the high cost of education, means demand is also changing the existing economic system. It would be less effective we apply the system of Islamic education in an atmosphere of ruthless capitalist economic system. Then the current system of capitalism must be stopped and replaced with an Islamic economic system is outlined that the government was the one who will bear all state education finance.
Second, technical solutions, ie solutions concerning technical matters that relate directly to education. This solution to solve problems such as teacher quality and student achievement.
Thus, solutions to technical problems returned to practical efforts to improve the quality of the education system. The low quality of teachers, for example, in addition given a solution of prosperity, is also given a solution to finance the teachers continue to pursue higher education, and provide various training to improve teacher quality. The low student achievement, for example it is given a solution to improve the quality and quantity of learning materials, to improve the teaching aids and educational tools, and so on.

CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclusion
The quality of education in Indonesia is still very low when compared with the quality of education in other states. The things that become the main cause of the effectiveness, efficiency, and standardization of education that is still less optimized. Other issues that the cause is:
1) Poor infrastructure,
2) The low quality of teachers,
3) Low welfare of teachers,
4) The low student achievement,
5) The low educational equity opportunities,
6) The low relevance of education to the needs,
7) The high tuition of education.
The solutions can be given from the above problems, among others, by changing the social systems associated with the educational system, and improving teacher quality and student achievement.
B. Suggestion
Development of the world in the globalization era is demanding changes to the national education system better able to compete in a healthy manner and in all areas. One way to do the nation in Indonesia to avoid getting left behind by other countries is to improve the quality of education first.
With the increasing quality of education means that human resources who are born that will get better quality and will be able to bring this nation to compete in a healthy manner in all areas in the international world.

REFERENCES
Tya.(2008). Efektivitas dan efisiensi anggaran pendidikan di Indonesia. December 20th 2011. Mataram. http://tyaeducationjournals.blogspot.com/2008/04/efektivitas-dan-efisiensi-anggaran.html
Orme, William. (2009,2010, 2011). Human Development Index. 20th December 2011. Mataram: http://hdrstats.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/IDN.html
Priraharjo, Kusumadewi.(2007). Masalah Pendidikan di Indonesia. December 20th 2011. Mataram: http://sayapbarat.wordpress.com/2007/08/29/masalah-pendidikan-di-indonesia/
…………( 2011). Pengaruh Penganggaran Berbasis Kinerja terhadap Efektifitas Pengendalian. December 20th, 2011. Mataram: http://www.bppk.depkeu.go.id/index.php/2008042272/jurnal-akuntansi-pemerintah/pengaruh-penganggaran-berbasis-kinerja-terhadap-efektifitas-pengendalian/kesimpulan.html
Sardjana, Djadja. (2011). Biaya Pendidikan: Berkah atau Masalah?. December 20th 2011. Mataram: http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2011/06/12/biaya-pendidikan-berkah-atau-masalah/
Sardjana, Djadja. (2010). Kebijakan E-learning Perguruan Tinggi Dalam Strategy Manajemen Pendidikan. December 20th 2011. Mataram: http://edukasi.kompasiana.com/2010/03/18/kebijakan-e-learning-perguruan-tinggi-dalam-strategi-manajemen-pendidikan/

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